Therapeutic Effects of Hydrogen Gas Inhalation on Trimethyltin-Induced Neurotoxicity and Cognitive Impairment in the C57BL/6 Mice Model

Eun Jeong, Johny Bajgal, In You, Md Habibur Rahman, Ailyn Fadriquela, Subham Sharma, Huang Kwon, So Lee, Cheol Kim, Kyu Lee

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DOI: 10.3390/ijms222413313 DOI is the universal ID for this study.

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Abstract:

Oxidative stress (OS) is one of the causative factors in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cognitive dysfunction. In the present study, we investigated the effects of hydrogen (H2) gas inhalation in trimethyltin (TMT)-induced neurotoxicity and cognitive dysfunction in the C57BL/6 mice. First, mice were divided into the following groups: mice without TMT injection (NC), TMT-only injection group (TMT only), TMT injection + lithium chloride-treated group as a positive control (PC), and TMT injection + 2% H2 inhalation-treated group (H2). The TMT injection groups were administered a single dosage of intraperitoneal TMT injection (2.6 mg/kg body weight) and the H2 group was treated with 2% H2 for 30 min once a day for four weeks. Additionally, a behavioral test was performed with Y-maze to test the cognitive abilities of the mice. Furthermore, multiple OS- and AD-related biomarkers such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), calcium (Ca2+), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase, inflammatory cytokines, apolipoprotein E (Apo-E), amyloid β (Aβ)-40, phospho-tau (p-tau), Bcl-2, and Bcl-2- associated X (Bax) were investigated in the blood and brain. Our results demonstrated that TMT exposure alters seizure and spatial recognition memory. However, after H2 treatment, memory deficits were ameliorated. H2 treatment also decreased AD-related biomarkers, such as Apo-E, Aβ-40, p-tau, and Bax and OS markers such as ROS, NO, Ca2+, and MDA in both serum and brain. In contrast, catalase and GPx activities were significantly increased in the TMT-only group and decreased after H2 gas treatment in serum and brain. In addition, inflammatory cytokines such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF), interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were found to be significantly decreased after H2 treatment in both serum and brain lysates. In contrast, Bcl-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression levels were found to be enhanced after H2 treatment. Taken together, our results demonstrated that 2% H2 gas inhalation in TMT-treated mice exhibits memory enhancing activity and decreases the AD, OS, and inflammatory-related markers. Therefore, H2 might be a candidate for repairing neurodegenerative diseases with cognitive dysfunction. However, further mechanistic studies are needed to fully clarify the effects of H2 inhalation on TMT-induced neurotoxicity and cognitive dysfunction.

Publish Year 2021
Country South Korea
Rank Positive
Journal International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Primary Topic Brain
Secondary Topic Environmental Pollution
Model Mouse
Tertiary Topic Pesticide Toxicity (Trimethyltin)
Vehicle Gas
pH N/A
Application Inhalation
Comparison
Complement